Utilitarianism

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Utilitarianism

The philosophy holding that moral actions must provide the greatest good to the greatest number of persons. Utilitarianism emphasizes the consequences of actions when evaluating their morality. For example, a utilitarian may regard a lie to a regulator as moral if it saves 2,000 jobs. Critics of utilitarianism contend that consequences are unknowable and argue that it could be used to defend atrocities. Utilitarians, on the other hand, argue that their philosophy is the best way to improve happiness in the aggregate.
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The first statement refers to act utilitarianism and the second to rule utilitarianism.
at 126-31 (arguing that rule utilitarianism imposes an ad hoc restriction on the basic utilitarian idea).
Rule utilitarianism, on the other hand, emphasizes the centrality of rules in determining what should be done.