In respondent conditioning
, salivation occurs in the presence of the bell, which is physically present; and in operant conditioning, lever pressing occurs in the presence of the food-eating functions that are now partially present in lever.
basically involves the contiguous pairing of the eliciting unconditioned stimulus with some other neutral stimulus called the conditioned stimulus.
This does not occur in respondent conditioning
because, since the beginning, the pairing is between stimuli (CS--US) and not between responses and stimuli (R--US).
In vivo exposure is a technique that draws directly from the concepts of respondent conditioning
, respondent extinction, and learning theory and it has shown efficacy in treating a wide range of anxiety disorders.
As a demonstration of its utility in assessing temporally discrete changes in brain activation and as a measure of general autonomic arousal, we exposed one subject to a respondent conditioning
paradigm during which both EDA and NIRS measures were taken for comparison.
In that study, Roche and Barnes (1997; Experiment 4) exposed three male and three female undergraduate subjects to a respondent conditioning
procedure in which a sexually explicit and nonsexual film clips were paired with presentations of nonsense syllables B1 and B2, respectively.
It is important to note that this effect, at least in theory, required what is sometimes called second-order respondent conditioning
(see Catania, 1998).
The primary focus of our research has been on the development of a biobehavioral conditioning model of ET based on current medical research and employing contemporary principles of behavior analysis and respondent conditioning
(Forsythe & Eifert, 1998; Forsythe & Chorpita, 1996; Poppen, 1998).
Of the 8 subjects, 5 showed evidence of respondent conditioning
and a transfer of respondent eliciting functions.
The earliest debate as to whether operant and respondent conditioning
are two fundamentally distinct learning processes consisted of a series of exchanges between Konorski and Miller (1937a, 1937b) and Skinner (1935, 1937).
Several efficacious therapeutic techniques were derived from the respondent conditioning
model such as systematic desensitization and in-vivo exposure (Eysenck, 1987; Wolpe, 1958).
1 We have included the suffix "type" to indicate that the respondent training procedure described in this paper departs somewhat from traditional respondent conditioning