Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression
, particularly when initiating therapy with BELBUCA(TM).
Although respiratory depression
due to epidural morphine is measurably dose-related (22) and low doses of morphine appear to have minimal potential for respiratory depression
, the risk of unexpected bulk cerebrospinal flow from lumbar to brainstem with unpredictable delayed respiratory depression
with potentially catastrophic outcome has dampened enthusiasm for the technique in many centres.
However, the incidence of respiratory depression
in their study was 3%, which many would not regard as low.
The concomitant use of CNS depressants can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression
, profound sedation, coma, and death.
While opioid use is generally safe for most patients, opioid analgesics may be associated with adverse effects, the most serious effect being respiratory depression
, which is generally preceded by sedation.
3 Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation Consensus Conference Report: Essential Monitoring Strategies to Detect Clinically Significant Drug-Induced Respiratory Depression
in the Postoperative Period, Anesthesia & Analgesia, April 2012, Vol 114, Number 4, The International Anesthesia Research Society
Because of the potential for respiratory depression
, caution should be exercised when TUZISTRA XR is administered, including when used postoperatively, in patients with pulmonary disease or shortness of breath, or whenever ventilator function is depressed.
Therapeutics under Development by Companies
Morphine sulfate oral solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL) may cause fatal respiratory depression
when administered to patients not previously exposed to opioids.
Schedule II opioid substances, which include morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and methadone, have the highest potential for abuse and risk of fatal overdose due to respiratory depression
One defines a new composition-of-matter patent, while the other protects our ability to use these compounds for the treatment of opioid-induced respiratory depression
and other related breathing disorders for which no approved oral medication exists.
Early indication of respiratory depression
with capnography enables medical staff to intervene before serious adverse events happen.