originated over three decades ago, the researchers' interest in this field is still noticeable.
Ability to decide when, what, where and how work is done allows employees to personalize their roles and QWL
and limits their intention to quit the job (Porter and Ayman, 2010).
The evolution of QWL
began in late 1960s emphasising the human dimensions of work that was focused on the quality of the relationship between the worker and the working environment (Rose et al.
This notion signals a need for further research in the area of QWL
Work system design characteristics may affect quality and safety of care and QWL
through workload (Carayon, Alvarado, and Hundt 2007).
Walton (1975) proposed eight major conceptual categories relating to QWL
as (1) adequate and fair compensation, (2) safe and healthy working conditions, (3) immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities, (4) opportunity for continued growth and security, (5) social integration in the work organization, (6) constitutionalism in the work organization, (7) work and total life space and (8) social relevance of work life.
Joshi (2007), to find out the issue of representation of legitimate interests of women workers in its entirety and make suggestions to help policy makers to improve the QWL
of women workers, specifically in banking, insurance, PSUs, and hospitals, it was found that the level of satisfaction of women employees with QWL
in their respective organization was quite high.
This research evaluates the performances, in terms of growth and profitability, of the QWL
and S&P 500 companies.
Factors to be considered in evaluating QWL
include development of human capacities, considerate supervision, job security, and employees' rights.
Professor Heckscher argues that the lessons of "managerialism" and QWL
experiments are: (1) Effective participative management requires less hierarchical lines of authority than are typically observed in large, unionized firms; (2) problem solving must be accomplished in a participative manner, emphasizing reasoned influence rather than the use of power; and (3) job descriptions must become more flexible.
The successful programs QWL
have been utilized in such organization such as General motor, Ford, Craisler and AT&T and Motorola and IBM and Texas Instrum, Xerox GE and so many other firms.
The term QWL
has been defined by various scholars and management practitioners but did not find a common definition.