He added: "We are encouraging the EU to take action to make sure farmers are not just price-takers
but also a price-maker.
They're frequently price-takers
on both ends, wielding little clout with their suppliers or customers.
The NFF is also keen to ensure that farmers as price-takers
will not be proportionally worse off from an increase in the fuel excise, as all increases in costs throughout the supply chain will be felt at farm-gate.
Since Giesecke supposes that exporters are not price-takers
in international markets, export volumes will need to be expanded at lower prices to fund such increased imports.
Producers are often simply price-takers
, with prices often bearing no real relationship to what the consumer actually pays.
The up-down-up pattern is well-known to all price-makers and many price-takers
- or, at least, the general shape of it is.
A final point of symmetry regarding price-takers
is that just as the market-determined product price must at least equal the value of minimum average variable cost to insure an incentive for a loss-minimizing ppt to remain open, the market-determined wage must be no greater than the value of maximum average revenue product to insure the same for a loss-minimizing rpt; only if these conditions hold will the firm--ppt or rpt--be able to cover its total variable cost and thus be able to insure its loss (or negative total profit) is less by remaining open than shutting down.
An alternative to the conventional competitive model is one in which firms are price-takers
in the product market but have some degree of market power in the labor market.
If employers were simple price-takers
, the employer variation would be entirely within the larger individual effects.
United States equity and Treasury markets have often been cited in the academic literature as examples of perfectly competitive markets involving numerous buyers and sellers acting as price-takers
Bear Stearns and its clients, and all other supporting banks and their clients, may directly participate with one another as price-takers
Both price-makers and price-takers
had convinced themselves that Arsene Wenger's men would be relaxing ahead of the FA Cup final.