Nor was there wanting still another precautionary motive
more related to Ahab personally.
These effects and precautionary motives
may have been amplified by financial under-development, as reflected in constraints on borrowing against future income and low returns on financial assets.
He places sole responsibility for China's soaring saving rate on precautionary motives
The first two measures will directly boost consumption, and the third will indirectly help to raise consumption by allaying the widespread precautionary motives
that lead to excessively high household and business savings.
However, households will save much more because of sharp declines in housing wealth, credit constraints and precautionary motives
at a time of rising unemployment: the saving ratio will rise from 1.
Nevertheless, when precautionary motives
are weak, decisions depend mostly on the mean, and errors in approximating the tails don't matter much.
If we consider two individuals, with one more risk averse than the other, we need to compare the intensities of their precautionary motives
, in addition to their measures of risk aversion, before we can determine who buys more insurance coverage in the presence of the state dependent background risk.
Bernanke noted in his speech, ''with consumer credit not readily available and precautionary motives
for saving remaining strong,'' China's domestic consumption was also restrained.
However, we note that higher net wealth also implies less permanent income variability, so that the importance of net wealth could point to precautionary motives
just as easily as to liquidity constraints.
In survey data, consumers report precautionary motives
as an important impetus for saving.
The extra yuan created from foreign exchange intervention just did not filter through to Chinese consumption, but instead went to satisfy the desire to hold yuan (for precautionary motives
under the broken social safety net) and yuan assets (for investment purposes to maximize returns under financial liberalization).
Since a large proportion of aggregate wealth is held by the richest few percent of households, these estimates very likely overstate the proportion of aggregate wealth that can be attributed to precautionary motives