121) In this vein, Cole and Elliott conclude: "We do not suggest that pollution havens are widespread.
However, several recent studies that use panel data to control for unobserved heterogeneity, or instruments to control for endogeneity, do find statistically significant pollution haven effects of reasonable magnitude.
These countries worry that a change in policies could lead to the relocation of industries in countries with lower standards, so called pollution havens
Moreover, open registries present a potentially easier form of encouraging industrial movement than do standard pollution havens.
David Wheeler, "Beyond Pollution Havens," Global Environmental Politics 2, no.
Scott Taylor first introduced a complete model of pollution havens
, The B.
Kahn & Yutaka Yoshino, Testing for Pollution Havens Inside and Outside of Regional Trading Blocs, ADVANCES ECON.
52) Brian Copeland and Scott Taylor, in a very thorough theoretical and empirical analysis of trade and the environment, conclude that "the evidence does not support the notion that trade patterns are driven by pollution haven motives.
The mere existence of pollution havens has been thoroughly debated.
Although, there is little empirical evidence to support the pollution havens theory, there is ample evidence to support the argument that MNCs, once they have established operations in a host-country, do actually contribute to the degradation of the environment.
Rather than setting themselves up as pollution havens
, many developing countries are recognizing that they have an opportunity to learn from the mistakes of the industrial world and leapfrog directly to the technologies of tomorrow.
Some feared that poorer countries deliberately would keep environmental standards lax in order to attract investment by becoming pollution havens