These concerns have strengthened the well-known pollution haven hypothesis, where environmental standards and regulations play a key role in the reallocation of polluting industries with poor environmental regulation.
1) For a review on the pollution haven hypothesis please consult Fullerton (2006), and for a survey of theoretical results on trade and environment, see Copeland and Taylor (2003).
Trade, the pollution haven hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve: examining the linkages.
A further inquiry into the pollution haven hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve.
6) Conviene observar la diferencia entre las proposiciones Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) y Pollution Haven Effect (PHE).
237-238): "early support for the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) was found by Lucas et al.
2], and found mixed evidences for the pollution haven hypothesis depending on the pollutants examined.
Using cross-country panel models, authors found evidence of the pollution haven hypothesis as countries with lower income levels with high manufacturing goods exports consume higher energy and the countries with higher income levels with high manufacturing goods imports consume less energy.
Central to the literature on trade's effect on the environment is the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) that predicts that removal of trade barriers results in flow of dirty industries to countries with lax environmental regulations.
On the other hand, the pollution haven hypothesis implies that countries with lower environmental regulations export dirty goods.
Two recent articles have found modest empirical support for the pollution haven hypothesis.
63) On the other hand, Cole finds that United States imports, from Mexico and from the world, are growing faster, as a share of United States consumption, in industries that have higher pollution abatement costs, just as the pollution haven hypothesis would suggest.