# variance

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Related to Phenotypic variance: environmental variance, phenotypic variation

## Variance

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical expectation of the average squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

## Variance

1. In accounting, the difference between the estimated and actual cost of a project or other operation.

2. In risk, the average deviation of a set of data points from their mean.

## variance

A statistical measure of the variability of measured datum from the average value of the set of data. A high variance, indicating relatively great variability, also indicates that the average is of minimal use in projecting future values for the data. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. Financial analysts use both statistical measures to weigh investment risk. Compare covariance. See also risk.

## variance

1. the difference between budgeted and actual results (see BUDGETING), or between STANDARD COSTS/revenues and actual costs/revenues. Variances can be:
1. adverse or negative when actual revenues fall short of budget or standard, or when actual costs exceed budget or standard;
2. favourable or positive when actual revenues exceed budget or standard, or when actual costs are less than budget or standard.
3. a measure of variation within a group of numerical observations, specifically the average of the squared deviations of the observations from the group AVERAGE.

See STANDARD DEVIATION.

## variance

Permission to use a property in a manner that does not meet current zoning requirements.In order to gain a variance,the property owner usually has to show a hardship on the property—not on the owner—if the requested use is not allowed. It is considered a hardship if the property will otherwise remain vacant or if a structurally sound improvement must be demolished to allow some other use. Buyers with a signed purchase contract can usually petition for a variance; this is commonly one of the steps in a due diligence plan that must be completed in a satisfactory manner before the buyer will purchase property.

References in periodicals archive ?
In the composition of the total phenotypic variance for the characters grain yield and plant cycle, regardless of the year, the highest contributions is from non-genetic effects.
25) of the total phenotypic variance in macroenvironmental plasticity (Table 2).
A wide range of phenotypic variance (Vp) and genotypic variance (Vg) were estimated for various traits (Table 4).
9% from phenotypic variance while the maternal genetic variance and the maternal permanent environmental variance are 22.
The yield is a noteworthy character, sinceit presents low heritability (20-30%), what can be attributed to the purely quantitative behavior, in function of a large number of loci that controls it, that permitsagreatenvironmental influence and, consequently, a reduction of relationship between the genetic and phenotypic variances.
m]), path coefficient 3, representing the square root of the proportion of the total phenotypic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted] determined by the maternal additive genetic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted]; (2) the maternal environmental variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted] as a fraction of the total phenotypic variance [Mathematical Expression Omitted], path coefficient 4; (3) direct-maternal additive genetic covariance ([[Sigma].
This experimental design also allowed us to quantify the proportion of phenotypic variance in each trait attributable to incubation effects vs.
The phenotypic variance can further be partitioned into genetic variance and environmental variance.
The difference between genotypic variance (GCV) and phenotypic variance (PCV) for 100 seed weight, seed volume, hydration capacity and swelling index was little, indicating the minimum influence of the environment for its expression.
2]p = Phenotypic variance GCV = Genotypic coefficient of variation PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variation GA = Genetic advance

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