For instance, the popular committees-the grassroots organs for popular participation and activism during the first intifada-should be rejuvenated and empowered to broaden the discussion of Palestinian strategy as recommended in the PSSG paper.
The PSSG, in fact, included visible members of various Palestinian factions from different Palestinian communities around the world.
Both GSSG and PSSG increased almost 100-fold in blood samples from healthy donors when thiols were not protected (by NEM) from oxidation before acidification of the sample (Table 1).
Treatment of blood samples with the oxidants diamide, t-BOOH, or menadione, which have different mechanisms of action (18-20), generated GSSG and PSSG (Figs.
MEASUREMENT OF GSSG AND PSSG TO REVEAL OXIDATIVE STRESS
When methodologic artifacts were avoided as much as possible, measurement of GSH, GSSG, and/or PSSG indicated the occurrence of oxidative stress.
In analogy with the in vitro experiments, the in vivo treatments also elicited immediate and significant increases in GSSG and PSSG over basal concentrations, whereas PCO and MDA increased slightly only after 120 or 180 min of menadione or t-BOOH treatment (Fig.
However, the usefulness of GSH and, particularly, of GSSG and PSSG as powerful biomarkers of oxidative stress is still hampered by some methodologic artifacts, as highlighted by 2 findings: (a) measurements by different research groups of the concentrations of GSH and, even more, of GSSG and PSSG span a more than 100-fold range in healthy persons (8); and (b) in individuals with the same pathology, GSH, GSSG, and PSSG have frequently been observed to increase by one research group and decrease by another group, e.
Therefore, minimal artifactual oxidation can cause, on one hand, a slight decrease in GSH concentrations with an acceptable bias from the real values and, on the other hand, dramatic effects on GSSG and PSSG concentrations, with increases of more than 100-fold.
1] (in vivo experiments), whereas GSSG and PSSG concentrations increased substantially (Figs.
Other authors have also identified artifacts that invalidate GSSG and PSSG analyses and, after controlling these variables, obtained measurements close to the actual concentrations of GSSG and PSSG (11,12, 30, 31).