sampling

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sampling

the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, Random Forest with oversampling could be inferred as the best solution, based on Accuracy metric.
Increasing resolution by oversampling and averaging often relies on the inherent noise present in the system.
One is data-based strategy which aims to make the original dataset balanced using mainly undersampling or oversampling techniques.
Solutions to address this issue include oversampling and undersampling.
Oversampling, combining several pixels to make one high-quality superpixel, adds sharpness, reduces noise and improves low-light performance.
With the oversampling scheme of the DGR [26,27], Gabor coefficients, derived from the analysis window frames can contain accurate information on the signal time-frequency components.
In a telephone survey of 1,200 Americans, which included oversampling of minority and lower socioeconomic groups, individuals were polled on a variety of issues such as financial incentives for donation, implied consent, the fairness of the current system, and reasons for not donating.
For night shots minus a flash, the oversampling technology used by PureView allows an incredible amount of light and takes clear images.
The Nokia 808 PureView uses a new technology originating from satellite imaging called pixel oversampling and combines Carl Zeiss' exclusive optics and Nokia's advanced algorithms, which combined will offer an unprecedented high-end imaging experience in a smartphone.
Coupled with a Carl Zeiss optics lens, the PureView 808's camera captures full HD 1080p video at 30 frames per second and also comes with new pixel oversampling technology for processing highest quality images.
The device sports a humongous 41MP sensor, which comes with high-performance Carl Zeiss optics and new pixel oversampling technology.
The Nokia 808 uses technology originating from satellite imaging called Pixel Oversampling.