Azhar (2001) On Overinvoicing
of Exports in Pakistan.
However, leakages due to overinvoicing
by exporters and mismatch between overseas shipment claims and bank transactions has emerged as a major area for concern.
This may be accomplished through acquiring loans, making salary payments, paying consulting fees, the use of false import/export invoices, overinvoicing
and underinvoicing, real estate investment and investment in the securities markets.
I suspected underinvoicing of sales out of Kenya, and overinvoicing
of expenses charged to Kenya, which both reduce taxable profit in Kenya.
and MNCs to formulate code of conduct for multinational corporations (MNCs) who are problem-makers, heavy risk-bearers, and who, as a compensation for bearing perceived risks, engage in tricky and speculative business dealings in order to earn abnormal profits through the techniques of transfer pricing, overinvoicing
, subcontracting, dumping of sophisticated technology without supporting local technical manpower, etc.
Import misinvoicing has switched from underinvoicing to overinvoicing over the last 20 years as a result of reduced import tariffs, following Mexico's accession to GATT in 1987 and to NAFTA in 1994.
a) Positive values indicate underinvoicing; negative values indicate overinvoicing.
O] increases the official supply of forex (a positive effect) and reduces the supply of forex in the UM (a negative effect) by reducing the underinvoicing of exports and the overinvoicing
5 million left by overinvoicing of supplies and contracts.
Ahmed Gana - 25 percent of $38 million left by overinvoicing of supplies and contracts.
Whereas export incentives have helped the country to manage a respectable growth rate in exports, exporters have exploited the weaknesses of the incentive system and developed some unfair export practices (by overinvoicing
the value of transaction).
The underinvoicing of exports and overinvoicing
of imports allows the traders to obtain the foreign exchange which may not be recorded in the government statistics.