MTF's estimate includes $288 million in revenue exposure, meaning lower-than-expected tax and nontax revenues
, as well as a $70 million hit from a reduction in the income tax rate, due to ease from 5.
The improvement was mainly from a significant increase in nontax revenues
and a provincial cash surplus of 0.
According to OECD estimates, total government revenues from all tax and nontax revenues
at all levels of government peaked at about 45 per cent of GDP in the late 1990s, slightly above the OECD median.
The loss of nontax revenues
related to the closure of the Manas Transit Center in 2014 will create headwinds for the fiscal consolidation that is needed to reduce vulnerabilities, rebuild policy buffers, and ensure macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability," Mr.
All tax and nontax revenues
fell both in the first eight months and in the month of August alone.
Such expansions will likely be significantly pursued by governments seeking not only greater deterrence of bad acts but also new nontax revenues
Studies have shown, however, that in such instances tax authorities have shifted the burden to other taxes, such as the income tax, or to nontax revenues
, such as fees and fines (Galles and Sexton, "A Tale of Two Tax Jurisdictions: The Surprising Effects of California's Proposition 13 and Massachusetts' Proposition 2 1/2," 57(2) Am.
However, tax and nontax revenues
are projected to rise from 55.
While the book focuses on the property tax, Brunori does discuss other major sources of local revenue, including sales and excise taxes, income and business taxes, and nontax revenues
such as intergovernmental aid, user fees and charges, and utilities.
TOTAL TAX AND NONTAX REVENUES
When the economy was booming from 1995 to 2001, states cut taxes and fees a total of $35.
The marked shift to fees and other nontax revenues
will make it more difficult for the the governor and the Legislature to close the projected $720 million shortfall in the state budget.
The 1995 budget commitment to increase services without raising the tax levy will be financed through operating cost reductions, better management of the district's available resources, and growth in nontax revenues