t+3] Natural logarithm
of one plus total number of patents filed (and eventually granted) in year t + 3 LnCite[Pat.
Analytics ADEP Ratio of the firm's sales to the total Audit Analytics sales of all clients of its auditor Compustat LOGASSETS Natural logarithm
of total assets at Compustat firm's fiscal year-end VARIANCE Variance of returns of the firm over its CRSP fiscal year LOGCEOV Natural logarithm
of (1+ dollar change ExecuComp in CEO's stock and option portfolio for a 1% change in stock return volatility) (in millions).
Notably, the transformation of the original values of the variables in natural logarithms
increased the correlation coefficients with TBCOEF10, which was favorable for the development of the model.
Other earning assets = the natural logarithm
of the difference between the total earning assets and the total loans.
In order to study economies of scale with respect to size as measured by total revenue of a firm, translog cost function is estimated for total expenses, total distribution expenses, and total general administrative and selling expenses with respect to the natural logarithm
of total revenue with total assets as a control variable for 19 companies.
Regression of the natural logarithm
of raw counts on time yielded a naive estimate of the intrinsic growth rate (r) of 0.
This prediction gives one data point in the simulated distribution of (the natural logarithm
of) wages that would have been earned by the ith European hockey player ([X.
Five control variables are included in Equation (2), which includes the variables used to measure financial distress in Equation (1): the natural logarithm
of the capital-to-assets ratio, the ratio of net income to lagged assets, and an indicator for negative net income.
5) Both dependent variables are in natural logarithm
The estimated coefficients are in natural logarithm
form and thus show elasticities of wheat area with respect to various explanatory variables.
Loglinear analysis is an extension of the two-way contingency table where the conditional relationship between two or more discrete, categorical variables is analyzed by taking the natural logarithm
of the cell frequencies within a contingency table.
The gross profit margin variable was not transformed into natural logarithm
as some observations were negative.