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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
In sports, motivation does have a key role as it can explain a wide range of things, starting with the reasons why one takes up doing sports and ending with those why one reaches performance and the other doesn't, although same premises/ conditions.
After all data have been collected the final score obtained by each sportsman at the test which measure the intensity of motivation.
As an important affective variable, motivation has been extensively researched in SL/FL learning (Crookes & Schmidt, 1991; Dornyei, 1994, 2005; Liu & Zhang, 2013; Spolsky, 2000; Ushioda, 2011; Wesely, 2009; Yamashita, 2015).
Subsequent research has found that integrative and instrumental motivation are not opposite ends of a continuum but are positively related, that better achievements in a SL/FL can also lead to higher motivation, and that SL/FL learning goals can break up into different orientation clusters (Dornyei, 1994; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995; Ushioda, 1993).
Teachers' perceptions identified the financial, incentive/promotional, time management, acknowledgement/ appreciation, formal training, multiple jobs and intrinsic motivation with lack of empowerment as the major demotivators.
Addressing these de motivators and reinforcing the solutions can lead to improvement in the faculty motivation.
Keywords: Motivation, anxiety, foreign language, pedagogy, deutsch, Philippines.
Other levels of extrinsic regulation, including introjected, identified and integrated regulation, describe degrees of internalisation of motivation that was originally directed by external forces.
In early 2009, the Gallup Institute published a study on the motivation of German companies.
Keywords: Motivation, intrinsic motivation, academic achievement, Secondary School Teacher (SST)
This result shows that there i s a rather weak relationship between lecturers' motivation and the implementation of innovation in TandL with the correlation coefficient value of r = 0.
Motivation refers to the reasons for specific behavior (Lai, 2011).