motivation

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Related to Motivation factors: Motivation theories

motivation

the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
Figure 2 shows what participants chose as the motivation factor for pursuing a business opportunity.
These include individuals, motivation factors, environmental surroundings, as well as social support.
Unsatisfactory hygiene factors can cause people to become dissatisfied -- but interestingly Christensen does not regard compensation as a motivation factor, but rather a hygiene factor.
652 Table 5--The regression analysis of the dimensions of motivation factors and seeking support from others model R [R.
Overall, the youth participants were somewhat motivated to quite a lot regarding the four motivation factors to participate in CDEs.
The results of the LMA test indicated that there were significant mean differences in all motivation factors between the two contribution groups.
For all nine motivation factors all of these criteria were successfully met for both groups.
Totally 60 students constituting of 30 females and 30 males participated in the research in which the effect of "award" as a motivation factor on ball throwing talent in athleticism was investigated for the children between 11-12 years old.
Other motivation factors can be employee understandingg, communication with employees, employee engagement, building loyalty and professional trainings (Stachova, Stacho 2010).
The third step represents the creation of the model of employment stabilisation including stimulating and motivation factors.
While significant differences were found between future female and male elementary school teachers' scores for most of the motivation factors to becoming teachers, no significant differences were found across socioeconomic backgrounds.