Natural scientific monists
like Ernst Haeckel may have quoted Goethe and Spinoza, but they nonetheless ultimately explained spiritual and cultural phenomena through their materialist systems: "Monism," in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ed.
According to the monist
, there is only one reality that includes in its being all finite reality as well as divine reality with no distinction between the two.
The reasons why it does matter, however, and why the monist
scientist should not be careless in the usage of ontological terms, lie in the reinforcement history and context of the listener.
Brilmayer, supra note 78, at 300 (stating that The Paquete Habana gave the monists
"much of what they want"); Jonathan I.
Nothing is more insulting to cultural monists
than a successful two-track career.
Chiefly under the influence of Machiavelli, Vico, and Herder, Berlin found what monists
had denied was possible, but which he believed to be true propositions that were incompatible or incommensurate with one another.
The most important point which the American neutral monists
took themselves to be making was one which avoided Miles Burnyeat's 'window model' of perception' in which 'the perceptual process is likened to opening a window so as to see things as they are' (p.
On the one hand, critical monists
hold that the aim of interpretation is, in a significant sense, restricted to discovering the one true meaning of an artwork.
will say that, absent a single such value, there can be no way to rank order different criteria of ethical assessment.
The key contention of pluralists against monists
, to which Kekes accords overriding importance, is that no value or set of values can be overriding.
But pluralists never posit, as monists
do, some overriding value to serve in settling value conflicts; and they avoid the radical relativist view that "all moral judgements are relative to the particular conception of morality that has emerged in a specific historically, collectively, and socially conditioned setting" (p.
Berlin makes a distinction between two visions of reality: that of the monists
, who believe in a single, unifying principle, and that of the pluralists, who embrace many, often contradictory, theories of being.