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the process of translating a product idea into a product which can be produced and marketed on a commercial basis. Though design is a creative process it has economic consequences insofar as a product's shape, configuration and performance affect its marketability and its cost of production. In order to achieve high product variety without involving an excessive variety of components, designers often use common, interchangeable parts and design products on a modular basis.

In order to remain competitive, firms need continuously to review the design of their products in the light of new developments in materials and processes. The technique of VALUE ANALYSIS is used to identify possible sources of cost savings without impairing a product's performance. See COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, longitudinal design is difficult to be implemented because it requires larger funding and consume more time.
With the longitudinal design, we were able to assess possible "carry over" from pre-college activities and college-entry attitudes to views and attitudes two years later.
This longitudinal design addressed a gap in current research, by linking together antecedent life goals and motivations on entry to students' studies, to predict exit achievement scores, to provide information concerning optimising international students' engagement and learning.
A quasi experimental prospective and longitudinal design was applied to patients, from Villa Copahue who approved the test in written form, over 18 years with a history of high respiratory pathology, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and low respiratory pathology like bronchitis or pneumonia diagnosis, they should complete six days of treatments.
Using a longitudinal design can decrease this artificially inflated relationship because there is a time gap between the TPB variables and the target behaviors (Elliott et al.
Finally, Erwin employs a longitudinal design to link alumni self-ratings of personal growth with intellectual development.
The study's strength was its prospective multicenter and longitudinal design.
c) Longitudinal Design I - repeated measures of ADL (Exhibit 3c):
Using a longitudinal design, students with hearing losses and their teachers completed ratings over time.
This study was limited in that it involved selected subjects and was of longitudinal design so it did not include a control group.
One of the strengths of the study was its longitudinal design, which followed subjects for 90 days following circumcision.
To link together the transition from infancy to childhood and adolescence, we have chosen an accelerated longitudinal design, with cross-sectional single time assessment of child and their respondent parent in families of [beta]-thalassaemia to understand the psychological impact in their families with reference to age-outcome trajectories over a broad age span in short duration.

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