The city also scores below average on pupils getting A-C grades at GCSE level, long-term unemployment rates
, households living in fuel poverty and people using outdoor space for exercising.
Rather than including a variable for the long-term unemployment proportion as in our analysis, Kiley includes both short-term and long-term unemployment rates
, which is functionally similar.
Both the short- and long-term unemployment rates
rose considerably during the recession.
The report said long-term unemployment rates
in CEB and SEE were on average three to four percentage points higher than before the crisis.
To the extent that the unemployment and long-term unemployment rates
move together, the difference in coefficient estimates reflects the differences in mean levels.
In fact, long-term unemployment rates
relative to total unemployment were above 40 percent in virtually every sector as of June 2012.
labor market is unlikely to suffer from the persistently high long-term unemployment rates
that dogged Europe in the 1970s and 1980s.
Estonia has thus gone through a very high boom and very deep bust period in its economy, which is also reflected in long-term unemployment rates
, making it an especially interesting case for studying regional and individual differences in long-term unemployment in the boom and bust periods.
By affecting these flow rates, labor-market institutions and policies influence both short - and long-term unemployment rates
Long-term unemployment rates
were lowest in Iceland, the United States and in Norway, with 0.
However, with respect to short-term and long-term unemployment rates
things could be different.
A high long-term unemployment rate
indicates that resources are insufficiently utilised and that there is a risk that people become permanently excluded from the active population.