The final deflection due to dead load and live load
What concerns the particular case of precast concrete arch underpasses, much less results are available in the literature; with this regard, it is worth mentioning the work reported by Zoghi and Farhey (2006) on the assessment of construction and live loads
on buried small arch bridges, and also the study presented by Audenaert et al.
are temporary loads that act on a structure.
The strength limit state analysis for floor joists considered the combination of dead plus live load
After an inspection and load rating analysis, the engineering firm determined that the bridge could not support current vehicle loads at the minimum live load
of HS20 recommended by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), which is 32.
In order not to disturb the existing foundations and to eliminate the need for new footings and foundations, the existing concrete slabs, originally designed for live loads
of over 200psf, will be stripped from three of the existing four stories.
This deflection criteria was selected for increase because vibration loads are caused by transient or live loads
, most often people moving about the floor itself.
Another sensitive issue for Tampa officials was the many live loads
that the water pipe would endure on a daily basis.
The model of live loads
on a highway bridge is based on heavily loaded trucks (Czarnecki, Nowak 2008).
The simple-span girders were made continuous for live loads
via a cast-in-place 216-millimeter (8.
Johnson  concluded that the predicted frequency of a floor should be calculated based upon only the actual tributary dead weight of the joist since the proposed design criterion was based on tests of bare floors (no live loads
per foot live loads
, 10-foot windows and truck elevators capable of lifting 20-ton 30-foot-long trucks to internal truck lobbies on each floor.