Historians have studied this pair of strikes when documenting the rise of the Knights of Labor
during Toronto's industrial revolution, when narrating the story of Howland's colourful two-year term as mayor, and when analyzing the legal issues raised by the strikes.
The wheels of the bureaucracy in Rome, then as now, turned slowly, but in the summer of 1888, the Holy Office decreed that the Knights of Labor
could be tolerated.
Knights of Labor
, and he issued Rerum Novarum just four years later, taking up many of Gibbons' points.
Neither members of the Granite Cutters Unions nor the Knights of Labor
needed to spend time in the capitol quarries or see a whipping to know that they opposed the exploitation of convict labor or competition with imported contract workers like the Scots.
At about the same time, the Knights of Labor
were doing similar things.
In 1883 Cardinal Emile Taschereau sent to the Holy See a copy of the constitutions of the Knights of Labor
, which was gaining support among French-Canadian workers.
Between the mid-1880s and 1905, several thousand people from this new working class joined the Knights of Labor
and a few other trade unions, but despite many, often violent, strikes, poor leadership and company enmity prevented any significant gains.
But where the German Furniture Workers Union, the Knights of Labor
and the Amalgamated failed, the Brotherhood succeeded in recruiting thousands of these Dutch immigrants.
Actors from Knights of Labor
to Single Taxers to Wobblies to New Leftists to the Squamish Five are woven into the tapestry.
29,1888, from Cardinal Giovanni Simeoni of the Vatican's Propaganda Fide to Baltimore Cardinal James Gibbons, permitting Catholics to join the Knights of Labor
Under the aegis of the Knights of Labor
, Jackson Ward politicians and dissident white workers created an independent "Workingmen's Reform" ticket that swept the city council in 1886.
The outstanding early example of an industrial union was the Knights of Labor
, which at its peak in the late 1880s counted some 730,000 members.