The wheels of the bureaucracy in Rome, then as now, turned slowly, but in the summer of 1888, the Holy Office decreed that the Knights of Labor
could be tolerated.
Neither members of the Granite Cutters Unions nor the Knights of Labor
needed to spend time in the capitol quarries or see a whipping to know that they opposed the exploitation of convict labor or competition with imported contract workers like the Scots.
Once the Knights of Labor
had been crushed, two other labor federations rose to prominence.
And most "unions" were linked to the American Federation of Labor or the Knights of Labor
At about the same time, the Knights of Labor
were doing similar things.
In 1883 Cardinal Emile Taschereau sent to the Holy See a copy of the constitutions of the Knights of Labor
, which was gaining support among French-Canadian workers.
Unlike Sabetti, Bouquillon's social views were similar to other Catholic liberals like the bishops John Ireland and John Keane, and Cardinal James Gibbons, who supported the 'Americanization' of immigrants, the establishment of the Catholic University of America, Catholic participation in the Knights of Labor
, and support and participation in public education.
To undermine efforts by the Knights of Labor
to organize these workers, mill owners relied on paternalism, which was best exemplified by the company town.
His collection of labor history essays, From the Knights of Labor
to the New World Order (Garland), was published in March.
The strongest section of Stern's book is his interpretive history of activism by the Knights of Labor
during the 1880s.
While Chicago and other cities were torn by strife, the furniture workers of Grand Rapids fared better under the conservative leadership of the Knights of Labor
Joseph O'Donnell, retired Executive Director of the Harvard University Trade Union Program, traces their roots back at least to the mid-1800's and the Knights of Labor
, predecessor of the AFL.