The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission said the arrangement, in which the airlines collaborate on joint rates
and scheduling, profits consumers as Virgin might not execute services from Australia to Abu Dhabi.
The velocity problem in this study is considered as inverse velocity problem in which velocity state of the end effector is given and input joint rates
required to produce the desired velocity are found.
Several shippers indicated that they are denied access to markets because the high switching charges or joint rates levied by Class I railroads cause their short line to be uncompetitive.
Uncooperative Class I railroads can deny market access through switching charges or joint rates, fail to supply equipment, divert overhead traffic to other carriers, demand unfair revenue splits on joint movements, and require excessively high car hire fees.
Prior to acquisition or leasing, the short line must negotiate reasonable switching charges and joint rates to assure market access, a guaranteed supply of rail cars, fair revenue splits on joint movements, the right to establish their own local rates, and access to Class I railroad overhead traffic.
It is difficult to develop satisfactory figures of the minimum volume of traffic necessary for continued success of a line, since viability depends not only upon the volume of traffic but other considerations as well, such as the rate level, the share of the joint rates (if any), the operating conditions, the effectiveness of management, and the length of the line.
Failure to provide a joint rate will cause shippers to ship only to or from the junction point and truck the goods in or out.
15 One small road in Oregon, the City of Prineville (not a new carrier) lost its inbound tire traffic because the UP and the BN would not allow it a share of a joint rate.
Despite a method provided by Staggers for surcharging prescribed divisions of joint rates
that had become unduly low, carriers usually resorted to cancellation of joint rates
over junctions which short-hauled the cancelling carrier.
The impetus for cancellation of through routes and joint rates
or the imposition of surcharges under Staggers came from the longstanding imbalance of divisions resulting from the Commission's ineptitude in deciding divisions cases involving official and other territories.