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Originally, all States which provided for an acquisition of nationality iure sanguinis nearly exclusively applied ius sanguinis a patre (in the paternal line); only in exceptional circumstances ius sanguinis a matre (the maternal line) was relevant (e.
Most countries now apply a ius sanguinis a matre et a patre: a child acquires the nationality if father or mother possesses this nationality (de Groot 2002a, 124).
Nowadays, most countries do not apply either ius sanguinis or ius soli, but a combination of both principles.
It is important to realise, that already the choice for a certain application of ius soli/ ius sanguinis implies an unequal competition of States in respect of sports(wo)men and unequal opportunities for athletes.
But in fact, if States do not apply ius soli or make exceptions regarding ius sanguinis this is often to some extent compensated by facilitated access to the nationality.
Insistence on ius sanguinis in identifying citizenship eligibility means that generations of immigrant descendants, eligible for citizenship according to ius soli, are uprooted from their countries of origin and marginalized in the societies where they were born.