Racial differences in rates of return, inter vivos transfers and inheritances, and savings behavior could all underlie the race difference in wealth models and contribute to the part of the wealth gap not explained by income and demographics.
Second, inheritances and inter vivos transfers are larger among whites than among blacks because the long history of discrimination against blacks has inhibited the accumulation of wealth in the black population.
Klevmarken (2004) finds, however, that in Sweden inter vivos transfers
are much smaller--possibly reflecting a greater role of the state in Sweden than in the United States.
Carpenter overlooked the presumption of undue influence/shifting burden of proof rule recognized in Rich and Wilkins regarding inter vivos transfers
(29) and did not overrule those decisions.
Consistent findings from the US, UK, and Australia in relation to intergenerational transfers identify partners and families as prime beneficiaries and suggest the principles behind post mortem bequests favour equality and thus differ from inter vivos transfers
that are more likely to favour need (Baker & Gilding 2011).
of Arkansas) collect cases and statutory material, supplemented by explicatory text, in order to explain the federal and state law of inter vivos transfers
and planning options and other issues of death and wealth transfer in the United States.
The Carpenter presumption has been extended to inter vivos transfers
His results point to the general need to develop a better understanding of the factors which motivate inter vivos transfers
Property was transferred or distributed to a spousal trust, by way of an inter vivos transfers
by individuals as it read before 2000 (subsection 73(1)) or a spousal trust described in subsection 73(1.
Thus, the probability of inheritance, the probability of inter vivos transfers
, and the probability of receiving financial support were proxies for net worth and income.
The authors find that households experiencing larger declines in the expected tax disadvantages of bequests substantially reduced their inter vivos transfers
relative to households experiencing small declines in the tax disadvantages of bequests.
2036(a)(1) returns an inter vivos transfer
to a decedent's gross estate if there is an express or implied agreement at the time of transfer that the transferor will retain lifetime possession or enjoyment of, or right to income from, the transferred property; see Regs.