Note: Results from Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
Scale, Lawton & Brody, 1969.
The researchers found that decreased activity in frontal areas of the brain, which are responsible for cognitive processing and decision making, and deep temporal and pariental (back) areas of the brain, which are associated with memory, were associated with greater impairment of instrumental activities of daily living
initiall and over time.
In addition, it has been observed in normal, community-dwelling older adults without HIV that speed of processing is important to perform instrumental activities of daily living
such as driving (Ball, Edwards, & Ross, 2007).
A group of North American contributors working in psychiatry, psychology, gerontology, neurology, occupational therapy, and sports medicine discuss examining real-world functioning from the perspectives of neuropsychology, human factors, and occupational therapy, including cross-cultural issues; the application of traditional neuropsychological tests; innovative performance-based test instruments and batteries that emphasize ecological validity; and approaches to evaluating the instrumental activities of daily living
, vocational functioning, medication management, and automobile driving.
Research in the field of aging, for example, has a history of referencing specific tasks that exist within domains referred to as activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living
(Granger, Mann, Ottenbacher, Tomita, & Fiedler, 1994; Katz, 1983; Lawton & Brody, 1969).
The impact of the intervention was assessed in eighty four patients who completed the complete intervention, by changes in various measures of healthy, functional independence, instrumental activities of daily living
, psychological aspects of health and quality of life.
5 million adults had difficulties with one or more instrumental activities of daily living
Functional ability was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
(IADL) scale, with cognitive function and dementia ascertained using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE).
Nearly three-quarters of respondents help their loved one with instrumental activities of daily living
like help around the home, transportation, shopping and meal preparation.
In contrast, instrumental activities of daily living
include more complex tasks such as using the telephone, paying bills, preparing meals, and using transportation.
Optimal treatment requires systematic reassessment--ideally, measurement--of physical and instrumental activities of daily living
at medical follow-up visits, he pointed out.
While the types and sizes of facilities vary, all provide meals in a social setting and are staffed with people who can provide different levels of help with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) like bathing and dressing and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
(IADLs) such as shopping, cleaning and medication management.