heterarchy

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Heterarchy

1. In politics, rule by a foreign power, even if masked by a puppet government. For example, Nazi Germany imposed heterarchy on France during World War II despite the presence of the Vichy government.

2. In human relations, governance in which no single participant has direct power over others, but in which any participant may come to possess such power. Heterarchy is very complicated and is marked by multiple, overlapping or even contradictory power structures. It may be contrasted with a hierarchy, but one may exist within the other.

heterarchy

an ORGANIZATION without a HIERARCHY or leader. All members of the organization have equal authority and involvement in decision-making. Such an organizational form is difficult to sustain beyond the smallest organizations because of the need to coordinate the organization's activities. See WORKERS' COOPERATIVE.
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Of interest is also that many of the principles of heterarchical, N-form organization are exemplified in the management of academic communities: top leaders are usually appointed by faculty; deanship is seen as a burden that should be rotated; real work is organized in projects; positional ascendancy is more a reward than a license to tell others what to do; symbols, ceremonies, and stories play a large part in upholding the identity; sabbaticals serve to eradicate old knowledge and force new encounters, etc.
29) pointed out in one of the earliest contribution to the literature on the new MNE, there is a certain dissonance in using the traditional term of subordination, "subsidary", for the subunits of the new heterarchical MNE.
Because of the plausibility of these arguments, during the last years numerous books and articles have been published that call for a network and heterarchical organization on MNCs' company level (e.
Microfiction's poetics of brevitas (which, recall, relies on abstraction), the quantitative dominance of summary in microfiction, and microfiction's characteristic device of isolating time into event-points has yielded numerous tales that foreground heterarchical structure (53) and ontological paradox.
The combination of meritocracy with rejection of top-down governance models results in the constitution of a heterarchical government where members have an increased input, ownership and pride in their online communities (Bruns, 2008), yet ultimately there is still some form of institutional governance.
Too many players and systems are involved to centrally regulate what is essentially a heterarchical, complex, adaptive, and interdependent network.
Heterarchical Governance, the Teach for All Network," European Educational Research Journal 12(4): 492-512.
This is why the old hierarchies of Tunisia, Libya and Egypt and Syria failed as the heterarchical revolutions of the Arab Spring destroyed their structured and unimaginative governments.
Klute, G and B Embalo (2011), "Introduction: Violence and Local Modes of Conflict Resolution in Heterarchical Figurations", in Klute, G and B Embalo (eds), The Problem of Violence.
Another major theme was the focus on humans working with autonomous systems in a heterarchical framework, with the conclusion that the most effective combinations include both human and machine intelligence.
He contrasts a hierarchical, top-down organizational models to a pluralist, heterarchical one that embeds recursive feedback loops within it (including Douglas Hofstadter's "strange loops" in which subordinate units are momentarily superordinate [107]).