heterarchy

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Heterarchy

1. In politics, rule by a foreign power, even if masked by a puppet government. For example, Nazi Germany imposed heterarchy on France during World War II despite the presence of the Vichy government.

2. In human relations, governance in which no single participant has direct power over others, but in which any participant may come to possess such power. Heterarchy is very complicated and is marked by multiple, overlapping or even contradictory power structures. It may be contrasted with a hierarchy, but one may exist within the other.

heterarchy

an ORGANIZATION without a HIERARCHY or leader. All members of the organization have equal authority and involvement in decision-making. Such an organizational form is difficult to sustain beyond the smallest organizations because of the need to coordinate the organization's activities. See WORKERS' COOPERATIVE.
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A number of facets of the Catalina Island Conservancy's organizational structure likely contributed to a speedy recovery including flexibility in funding allocations, intimate knowledge of the decline by decision makers, an adaptive approach to decision-making, and a more heterarchical structure.
To test the effects of case structure on problem-solving and knowledge transfer, this research project focused on hierarchical versus heterarchical web-based hypermedia designs of ill-structured problems.
That is why understanding, measuring and implementing heterarchical interconnection should be a top priority for policymakers everywhere.
In particular, he discusses and analyses the strategic motivations of MNEs and how these are reflected in a more heterarchical organizational structure which departs from established hierarchical models.
Managerial philosophies have shifted from hierarchical structures to heterarchical ones.
In the first, landscapes where the centralising tendencies of elites were thwarted by factional or heterarchical tensions are discussed.
Furthermore, it must be emphasised that throughout the whole of the Iron Age there were not only strongly hierarchical societies, but also other communities, often nearby, in which the structures of power were less clearly defined and which present evidence for a more heterarchical and decentralised landscape (Hill 2006).
Birkinshaw/Morrison 1985, Hedlund 1986) counter that an MNE's scope of operations can become too complex for centralized decision-making and that a heterarchical structure, where decision-making is dispersed throughout the MNE, is more appropriate.
The exclusionary and hierarchical social organisation assumed by the prestige goods model is challenged by socially complex political systems where social organisation is heterarchical (cf.
From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Thailand: applying the heterarchical approach.
Organization of the Dynamic Multinational Enterprise -- the Home-based and the Heterarchical MNE, International Studies of Management and Organization, 25, 1-2, 1995, p.
The settlement patterns at Timbuktu are believed to represent an expansive urbanism possibly characterised by heterarchical power relationships.