culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Hontiveros is also pushing for the lowering of age of those who should be allowed to take the HIV test, from the present 18 years old to 15 years old and above.
The interim report [9] concludes that the results of the pilots provide evidence that the 2008 national guidelines' [5] recommendations of a routine offer of an HIV test to new registrants in primary care and general medical admissions in high-prevalence areas are feasible, acceptable and effective in identifying previously undiagnosed persons.
African Americans who had an HIV test at a clinic were more likely to be women, to be between ages 18 and 34, and to have a high school education.
The "prevention for positives" initiative consists of four key components: making HIV testing a routine part of medical care, implementing rapid HIV tests outside medical settings, preventing new infections by working with HIV-positive people and their partners, and decreasing perinatal HIV transmission through routine HIV testing of pregnant women.
Our biggest concern was that word would spread that the tests were no longer accurate and people wouldn't bother to come in for testing," said Jim Key of the Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center, which stopped offering oral rapid HIV tests in December.
200,000 at risk pregnant women present at hospitals and require a rapid HIV test each year.
They must agree to getting an HIV test, usually in writing.
The preliminary positive result typically leads to a repeat ELISA test and must be confirmed by another, more specific HIV test to rule out the possibility of false-positive results.
Health department records show that most public and private prenatal-care providers offer pregnant women the HIV test.
FDA warned consumers about an unapproved, fraudulently marketed home-use HIV test system labeled "Lei-Home Access HIV test" distributed by Lei-Home Access Care located in Sunnyvale, California in a press release issued on September 26, 1997.
did not discriminate against one of its employees when it fired him for refusing to reveal the results of his HIV test to the hospital.
males aged [greater than or equal to] 18 years reported ever having an HIV test (3), and in 2012, an estimated 15% of males living with HIV had undiagnosed HIV infection (4).