Immune function in intrauterine growth retardation
Although the above mentioned lesions are common to intrauterine growth retardation
, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and thrombophilia, some investigators have observed an increase in the extent of villous infarction, which could be consequent to increased occlusive thrombi in spiral arterioles.
Using the TEN system, studies have demonstrated that alcohol-induced fetal growth retardation
is increased by undernutrition (Shankar et al.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to THMs and HAAs during the third trimester and during individual weeks and months of late gestation on the risks for term low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation
, and very preterm and preterm births.
A registry run by the ACAAI along with the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology has not identified an increase in intrauterine growth retardation
in pregnant women treated by allergists with inhaled corticosteroids.
A severe episode of preeclampsia or eclampsia also is associated with a worse outcome in subsequent pregnancies, with an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation
, perinatal loss, and abruptio placentae.
In support of the Barker hypothesis, epidemiologic studies have shown that markers of malnutrition, such as low birth weight, small for gestational age, or frank intrauterine growth retardation
(IUGR) strongly predict the subsequent occurrence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, breast cancer, and prostate cancer in adult life.
Whether this growth retardation
was a statistical fluke or a result of the procedure is unknown.
SHOX deficiency may manifest as growth retardation
, in utero or during childhood, and may also be associated with other skeletal changes.
Epidemiologic studies have shown that low birth weight at term and, more specifically, intrauterine growth retardation
are associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and lowered cognitive performance.
Infants are born each year weighing less than 5-1/2 pounds--the definition physicians use for a low-birthweight infant, a classification that includes both premature babies and those with intrauterine growth retardation
(SN: 10/15/83, p.
Inhaled corticosteroids have been linked to a number of systemic side effects including growth retardation
, acne and other skin problems, osteoporosis and glaucoma.