government expenditure

Also found in: Acronyms.

government (public) expenditure

the current spending and INVESTMENT by central government and local authorities on the provision of SOCIAL GOODS and services (health, education, defence, roads, etc.), marketed goods and services (coal, postal services, etc.) and TRANSFER PAYMENTS (JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, state PENSIONS, etc.). In the CIRCULAR FLOW OF INCOME MODEL, transfer payments are excluded from government spending because these are not made in return for productive services (that is, add to total output) but merely transfer taxation receipts from one household to another.

Government expenditure is financed by TAXATION and by borrowing (see PUBLIC SECTOR BORROWING REQUIREMENT).

Government expenditure is an important component of AGGREGATE DEMAND in the circular flow of income/expenditure. In 2003, government expenditure accounted for 15% of gross final expenditure (GFE) on domestically produced output. (GFE minus imports = GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. See Fig. 133 (b) , NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS.

Government expenditure is used as an instrument of FISCAL POLICY in regulating the level of spending in the economy. However, short-term changes in government expenditure may be difficult to achieve because of administrative and political difficulties, especially where cuts in expenditure are being made with a view to contracting aggregate demand. For example, short-term cuts can be difficult to achieve in health, education, etc., expenditures, given the labour-intensive nature of these activities, without heavy redundancies and disruption of public services; while cuts in transfer payments to poorer members of the community are politically unpopular. Furthermore, where the brunt of changes fall upon public investment expenditures, this can severely disrupt long-term investment projects while cuts serve to deplete the social infrastructure. In addition, where government expenditure includes spending on goods and services bought in from businesses, changes can have dramatic effects on the prosperity of the private sector. See SOCIAL PRODUCT, BUDGET ( GOVERNMENT), COLLECTIVE PRODUCTS, CROWDING-OUT EFFECT.

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t-1] = 1) denotes the probability, at time t, that the government expenditure is at the low expenditure regime ([s.
Eurostat mentioned that among the main functions of general government expenditure in the European Union (EU), 'social protection' was by far the largest in 2016, equivalent to 19.
5 per cent over the fiscal year 2017, making up 21 per cent of total government expenditure.
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According to the Keynesian theory, an increase in government expenditure leads to an increase in economic growth via an expansionary fiscal policy.
However, aid fluctuations constrain implementation of government expenditure programs, said Carolyn Turk, the World Bank Country Manager for Rwanda.
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He added that while the fiscal deficit situation would not allow government expenditure to go up, every means need to be explored for raising consumption and investment demand.
TONY Hubble (Letters, May 7) says that in Labour's final years government expenditure 'shot out of control', without confronting my argument that borrowing to invest in productive development more than pays for itself in the medium term.
Bulgaria had the lowest ratio of government expenditure on education to GDP among the EU27 in 2011, according to Eurostat data.

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