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1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.


The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
References in periodicals archive ?
L'Evolution intervenue au Quebec a eu pour effet de fragmenter l'univers discursif canadien francais, le nationalisme territorial quebecois devenant nationalisme institutionnel ailleurs, mais sur le meme principe de creation d'espaces unilingues << qui serviraient de base de pouvoir pour les membres d'un groupe defini selon l'identite ethnique, mais dont les regles du jeu demandent une legitimation democratique pluraliste >> (p.
beaucoup moins que]sraE1/2l veut fragmenter le monde arabe et le transformer en champ d'ordures, a l'image de l'actuel Irak[beaucoup plus grand que], dit-il, qualifiant ce printemps [beaucoup moins que]d'hiver islamique[beaucoup plus grand que].
Selon eux, toute intervention militaire au nord du Mali finira par fragmenter ce pays et les [beaucoup moins que]bombardements[beaucoup plus grand que] promis par les allies ne pourraient eviter des derapages, comme ceux qu'on voit au Pakistan, et amener les Touareg a ne pas courir au secours de leurs freres au Mali ou ailleurs.