central bank

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Central bank

A country's main bank whose responsibilities include the issue of currency, the administration of monetary policy, open market operations, and engaging in transactions designed to facilitate healthy business interactions. See: Federal Reserve System.

Central Bank

A bank that is constituted by a government or international organization to issue and regulate currency, regulate banks under its jurisdiction, act as a lender of last resort, and generally ensure a sustainable monetary policy. Oftentimes, central banks are charged with one or more specific duties such as attempting full employment or a certain exchange rate for the currency. Most commonly, however, central banks are charged with finding the balance between maintaining low inflation and high economic growth. They do this primarily by setting interest rates at which they lend to banks under its jurisdiction which, in turn, highly influences interest rates throughout the country or region. Prominent central banks include the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Japan, and the People's Bank of China.

central bank

A bank administered by a national government. A central bank issues money and carries out the country's monetary policy. The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States.

Central bank.

Most countries have a central bank, which issues the country's currency and holds the reserve deposits of other banks in that country. It also either initiates or carries out the country's monetary policy, including keeping tabs on the money supply.

In the United States, the 12 regional banks that make up the Federal Reserve System act as the central bank. This multibank structure was deliberately developed to ensure that no single region of the country could control economic decision-making.

central bank

a country's leading BANK generally responsible for overseeing the BANKING SYSTEM, acting as a ‘clearing’ banker for the COMMERCIAL BANKS (SEE CLEARING HOUSE SYSTEM) and for implementing MONETARY POLICY. In addition, many central banks are responsible for handling the government's budgetary accounts and for managing the country's external monetary affairs, in particular the EXCHANGE RATE.

Examples of central banks include the USA's Federal Reserve, Germany's Deutsche Bundesbank, France's Banque de France and the European Union's EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK. (For a more detailed discussion of a central bank's activities see the BANK OF ENGLAND entry).

central bank

a country's leading BANK, generally responsible for overseeing the BANKING SYSTEM, acting as a ‘clearing’ banker for the COMMERCIAL BANKS (see CLEARING HOUSE SYSTEM) and for implementing MONETARY POLICY. In addition, many central banks are responsible for handling the government's budgetary accounts and for managing the country's external monetary affairs, in particular the EXCHANGE RATE.

Examples of central banks include the USA's Federal Reserve Bank, Germany's Deutsche Bundesbank, France's Banque de France and the European Union's EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK. (For a more detailed discussion of a central bank's activities see the BANK OF ENGLAND entry.)

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