Estimating a broader measure of household income that adds employer-provided health insurance contributions and the ex ante value of government-provided health insurance (Medicaid and Medicare) to the traditional measure of household income (household size-adjusted, pre-tax, post-transfer, in-cash income of persons).
For their primary estimates the CBO uses the ex ante value of employer-provided health insurance, but unlike us they use the fungible insurance value of Medicare and Medicaid, which the Census Bureau has estimated and included in the public-use versions of the CPS since 1995 (U.
As a result, we believe that antitrust policy creates a "duty to disclose" patent rights in these situations and duties not to impose excessive terms and conditions, including royalties that exceed the ex ante value of the essential patents.
Rather, the main cost that such a duty imposes on patentees is the opportunity cost of not being able to claim damages above the ex ante value of the technology, or the cost of locating and informing potential infringers that their rights exist, when traditionally the burden would be on potential infringers to discover patent rights.
What counts as a fair price for access to a region's genetic resources should be judged by the expected ex ante value of the resources.
In particular, the value of the resources they deserve is likely to exceed the ex ante value of the land they occupy.
We list a number of empirical studies that proxy for ex ante value uncertainty, but we are aware of no studies that have yet proposed proxies for ex post value uncertainty.
While numerous previous studies consider and proxy for ex ante value uncertainty, only recently have theoretical papers considered that value uncertainty may continue to be resolved after the start of trading (ex post).
In theory, one might be able to measure the ex ante value
of ATDs by creating a sample of firms about to go public that already have elected to put ATDs in their charters.
A rational caregiver's ex ante value to reduce risk of death or illness would include the full value of this change, including the values attaching to his or her children.
Valuation Link Like adult health, the indirect effects on children are in theory already embedded in the standard ex ante value of a rational caregiver who considers the full value to himself or herself of protecting the environment.
Rather, it simply reflects the fact that if cash flows happen to equal their initial expected values, the ex post value of that outcome will exceed the ex ante value