If the combined effect of steep losses in equity markets and rising dependency ratios
cause pension funds to struggle to meet their obligations, it will be up to governments to provide safety nets -- if they can.
American foreign energy dependency ratios
Like in other parts of the world and consistent with earlier studies, family size and dependency ratios
are linked to poverty dynamics.
In 2013, China's dependency ratios
of populations aged over 60 and above 65 were up to 21.
They note that the lower cost of financing pensions in Scotland due to lower further life expectancy makes providing pensions in Scotland less expensive per retiree, but that higher dependency ratios
(2) work against this when pension affordability is assessed in terms of the cost per working adult.
HIV and AIDS impact negatively on agricultural productivity and increases dependency ratios
, resulting in increased food insecurity.
It said: "Some areas of rural Ireland, such as Donegal and Mayo, also show up as very deprived with high dependency ratios
Despite Namibia's decline in the human dependency ratios
the human development report 2013 has shown that Namibia's performance still leaves more to be desired based on its income per capita and relatively small population.
are used as indicators of the relative size of the non-working age and working-age populations (Chakraborti, 2002).
For emerging economies, their old-age dependency ratios
are expected to rise from 13 percent today to 33 percent by 2050.
Since dependency ratios
or rates are conventionally defined in terms of the population 65 and over, the implications of an increased employment rate for this age group is first discussed.
Reduced dependency ratios
mean that the proportion of the population in working ages (15-64) continues to increase while those in the younger ages (0-14) decrease.