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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
AlphaSTEM Culture System is a simple, natural method for inducing the naive state in human stem cells without the use of biochemical inhibitors.
The partnership between the two companies will enable the cell culture system to be available to European scientists.
The present study is a single centre comparative study for comparing the performance of the newly installed automated blood culture system with the conventional blood culture system.
The present study was planned to determine the utility of automated blood culture system BACTEC 9240 for the detection of clinically significant pathogens in blood and its comparison with conventional blood culture in terms of their time to positivity and rate of isolation.
However, such studies have limitations in that the monolayer and microenvironment of 2D culture systems do not mimic in vivo conditions, which limits the predictive power of data obtained using 2D models.
It is essential to know about "Humanizing Research Culture System through Quality Assurance Practices in the Universities of Pakistan".
1978) in order to observe the effect of culture system on the biomass production of FMD virus.
All blood culture vials detected as positive by the automated blood culture system, as well as all bone marrow and synovial fluid specimens, should be manipulated in biologic safety hoods until the isolated microorganisms are definitively determined to be other than Brucella sp.
The investigators induced heme deficiency in a nerve cell culture system.
Growth (increase in weight) of PL was significantly higher in the static culture system for all diets evaluated in both experiments except for diets con taining 10% protein.
A revolutionary culturing method for the in vitro development of embryos known as the blastocyst culture system enables physicians at Yale-New Haven (Conn.