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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
A school spokeswoman said: "The cultural significance of the games has also been driving the work of the school orchestra and the BTEC dance group, who will perform as part of our opening ceremony.
She added: "It has immense tourism potential and historical and cultural significance for Northern Ireland.
The Bus," a feature-length documentary exploring the history and cultural significance surrounding the Volkswagen bus, will screen twice Wednesday at the Bijou Art Cinemas.
Funds will be granted on the basis of an open and public selection procedure, ensuring that the available budget is distributed according to the cultural significance of the submitted projects.
Prince of Wales followed explanations on the historical and cultural significance of the almost four-century old synagogue, which is classified by the UNESCO, with three other synagogues in Fes, as historical monuments of universal value.
00pm) Documentary exploring Ancient Rome by studying the cultural significance of the Colosseum, re-creating the opening games of AD80.
The Cultural Significance of Free Software rehabilite une (anti)epistemologie pragmatique deweyenne renouvelee par une theorie de l'imaginaire social, qui s'appuie largement sur l'ouvrage de Charles Taylor: Modern Social Imaginairies (2004).
Among the topics are the cultural significance of wild-gathered plant species in an area of Austria's Eastern Tyrol and the influence of socioeconomic changes on local gathering practices, two major phytotherapeutic treatments from the Maltese Islands, herbal and food medicines among the Bangladeshi community in West Yorkshire, the persistence of wild food and and wild medicinal plant knowledge in a northeastern region of Portugal, the gathering and consumption of wild vegetables in Spain, plants as symbols in Scotland today, and the ethnobotanical riddle of the botanical identity and cultural significance of Lithuanian jovaras.
The Vatican is, likemany other places around theworld, of historic and cultural significance aswell as a religious and administrative centre for the billion Catholics around the world.
They pointed out that it was one of only a few dozen calcareous fens in North America and a place of cultural significance for the Brokenhead Ojibway.
Nats MP Angus MacNeil said: "It is appalling given their iconic cultural significance.
Are we at all talking about the same thing when we speak of a sign's connotation, its interpretant, its cultural significance, its anthropological treatment, its holistic value, or the verbum mentis of its Augustinian triad?

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