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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Prieto comenta a este semanario que recientemente se reunio con el gobernador de la entidad, Rolando Zapata Bello, y representantes de Cultur para "acreditar que el recurso en buena medida pueda regresar a tareas de exploracion, conservacion y acondicionamiento de las zonas arqueologicas que son del manejo exclusivo del INAH".
Councillor Nigel Howells said: "Having been responsible leisure and culture for eight years, amuch as I resisted in meights years of going out tthe market, sadly we arwhere we are and this ithe only way we can seeto keep leisure and cultur high on the agenda in Cardiff.
El automovil, tan individual, ha terminado por modelar el urbanismo, tan social, en acuerdos politicos que, sin duda, son muy extremos en aquellos sitios donde la cultur car ha triunfado sin limitaciones.
005 * Includes both clinical sepsis and sepsis confirmed with cultur Table 3.
Este libro multimedial no solo se debe a la preocupacion o especialidad pedagogica de la autora, este afan se debe tambien a su apego a la cultur a mapuche, que, como toda la cultura originaria, configura sus cantos, relatos y mitos en el universo oral, sonoro y visual; en una poligrafia necesaria para la socializacion y la preservacion de esas practicas verbales.
But Davis also shows u s that, although many in Labour lack affinity with the politics and cultur e of the country, some at least recognise this failing; it is almost touching to read of them discovering (and perhaps envying) people for whom politics is an existential commitment of intense passion and even beauty.
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The Foundation acts as a French cultural center, "which aims at spreading the French language and cultur in Bethlehem and the surrounding area and plays a key role as a focal point for numerous Franco-Palestinian cooperation projects implemented in this area, said the release.
AnFood Animal Food, Cousir Construction, Cultur Cultural, Envirou
Furthermore, the current system divorces the people from the things they produce like "resources food cultur ideas / media.
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