Argentina for instance has taken back control of YPF from its Spanish owners, Repsol; TNK-BP's troubles in Russia seem to be never-ending; and there's even creeping expropriation
in places such as the UK and Australia, where tax regimes have sharpened with little warning.
Our presence in a deal not only compensates an investor in the case of expropriation, creeping expropriation
, war and civil disturbance or breach of contract.
Exposure to political unrest will only grow as global business continues to expand into new and often hostile territories where the threat of resource nationalism, creeping expropriation
and supply chain vulnerability is increasing," said Grahame Millwater, Willis Group president.
The US treaty, for example, protects all kinds of investments and guarantees the investor the better national treatment or MFN (Most Favoured Nation) treatment; international standards apply to expropriation, including creeping expropriation
02(b) exclusion, the relevant question is "whether the remaining acts, standing alone, constitute creeping expropriation
An exception to this are articles focusing on corruption, a form of creeping expropriation
expropriation decree, no act of creeping expropriation
, and no
In countries where local authorities are both owners of key corporations and the regulators of market competition, the potential of creeping expropriation
through punitive regulatory measures is therefore a very real concern.
Factors that could negatively influence the rating at the current 'BBB-' (Triple-B-Minus) level would be cost overruns substantially beyond those already announced; commodity prices of ammonia and urea remaining at historically low levels into the operational phase of the project; further deterioration in the sovereign foreign currency rating of Venezuela currently rated 'B+' (Single-B-Plus) with a stable outlook by DCR; or any interference in the project by the sovereign that is viewed as creeping expropriation
of Mining Investments: an African Perspective
With political risks such as currency inconvertibility or creeping expropriation
added, some emerging markets present truly formidable barriers.
A cursory assessment may overlook types of risk--seeing a national guarantee against expropriation, for instance, while overlooking the potential for creeping expropriation
through punitive regulatory measures--or key sources of exposure--outsourcing arrangements, just-in-time inventory management and logistics streamlining.