This is just one example of what consultant pharmacists can do to improve risk management and, as a result, help with cost containment
in a way that improves, rather than erodes, quality of care.
Also since 1997, no jurisdiction has mandated the use of managed care and no new jurisdiction has added treatment guidelines as a cost containment
Further, an important factor affecting the ethical acceptability of most cost containment
measures is the process by which those measures are adopted-that process should be public, allowing input from all affected parties so as to increase policymakers' accountability for their decisions.
Managed-care-type cost containment
has succeeded in limiting cost increases to employers, but only by shifting responsibility for payments to the individual patient and to the public sector.