References in periodicals archive ?
Commuting (and optional business use) are both extra.
They found that every extra minute of commuting time reduces both job and leisure time satisfaction, increases strain and worsens mental health.
5%) of workers in Birmingham would like to use their commuting time more wisely.
The survey also found that those who work in Birmingham or Manchester might actually be better off living in the city centre rather than commuting.
Workers were most likely to head for Cheshire West and Chester, with 14,700 commuting there, according to the Welsh Government figures, followed by 1,100 to Wirral and 900 to Liverpool.
While commuting has long been thought to have some upsides, like providing time to unwind and transition from the workday, the new findings suggest the opposite is true for most people.
But 21% of workers commuting to cities would not move closer as the standard of living is better where they are, with bigger homes and better schools.
The survey found the length, and cost, of a commute was highest in London with those travelling to or in the capital spending more than 13,000 hours commuting in a lifetime.
In particular, we obtain the chromatic number, independent number and clique number of the non- commuting graph.
Part of the study concerned pilots commuting from where they live to the airport where they work, and this report is limited to those findings.
This study yields new information about biological outcomes and commuting distance, an understudied contributor to sedentary behavior that is prevalent among employed adults.
Some of the associations between long commutes and health -- such as back pain and obesity -- can be attributed to the sedentary nature of commuting, while other associations -- hypertension, for example -- are likely related to the stress associated with extended stop-and-go traffic and a lack of control over traffic conditions.