In contrast, under causal determinism
, no one need be responsible for the background conditions.
Even though the ancient Stoics, from Chrysippus onward, were committed, by other things they affirmed, to the truth of what we call causal determinism
, the issues they explicitly faced in reconciling their thesis of late with responsibility for action have very little to do with these specific commitments.
Notice that whether the person acts freely or unfreely in Watson's account, as in Frankfurt's account, is completely independent of causal determinism
But now, focus our attention on the fact that causal determinism
might be true.
Part 3 commences its discussion of Aquinas's riposte to causal determinism
by explaining his modal semantics of the necessary, contingent, possible, and impossible.
Essentially, the main reasons come down to: (1) Science shows that causal determinism
is true, and (2) Reflective common sense shows that causal determinism
This becomes evident, for example, in her notion of causal determinism
which seems too closely tied to the notion of mechanical force.
Dialogue eleven, on freedom, determinism and responsibility, examines whether human freedom is compatible with causal determinism
, and relates this debate to questions of responsibility; namely, if a person's actions are determined in some way, then in what sense can that person be held responsible for them?
9] Strawson attempts to explain the intelligibility of ascriptions of moral responsibility given the possibility of causal determinism
The author replies to the challenges to Frankfurt-style compatibilism about causal determinism
and moral responsibility presented in Daniel Speak's paper "The Impertinence of Frankfurt-Style Argument.
They argue, more contentiously, that these examples show that the kind of control that grounds moral responsibility is what they call "guidance control," which "consists in the action's issuing from the agent's own, moderately reasons-responsive mechanism" and that the truth of the thesis of causal determinism
would not show that agents fail to exercise guidance control of their actions.
Most of the traditional defenses for compatibilism center on the claim that free will (or autonomy) and causal determinism
in the explanation of human behavior or choices are logically or metaphysically compatible.