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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
The report analyses the global medical case management services market in terms of market value (US$ Mn), by mode of service, the severity of the case, and end user, and provides information regarding regional market dynamics, regulations, competitive landscape, current trends, market estimations, and forecast.
Vibra Hospital Fort Wayne is taking advantage of National Case Management Week because it is an effective way to spotlight the invaluable roles and positive contributions of case management professionals.
One of the most interesting chapters describes the development of the strengths case management model at the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare and how this model found what Floersch would call scientific legitimization.
Nurses, administrators and physicians retooled a traditional case management program that was led by nurses, based on financial deliverables and linked case managers to individual physicians.
Return employees to productive employment as early and fully as safely possible through intensive disability case management.
After a five-year run of managed care programs, many self-insureds are moving back to traditional case management for a number of reasons:
The examples of case management programs that have been implemented in a variety of settings were complemented with evaluative data and reference to publications that contained further information on the project.
The impetus for case management practice in health care settings can be traced to the skyrocketing cost of workers compensation in the 1970s.
Case management is designed to promote patient and customer satisfaction through the use of clinically expert case managers who can balance patient and family needs with efficacious and cost-effective use of resources while continually monitoring, evaluating, and modifying the treatment plan to achieve optimal patient outcomes (Mercy Healthcare Arizona, 1994).
Focuses its efforts on keeping those on short-term disability--typically those who are disabled for less than six months from going on long-term disability, through duration guidelines, case management, and rehabilitation, when appropriate.
In 1988, officials reorganized the unit into five separate functions--local case management, vehicle forfeitures, real property forfeitures, Federal case management, and investigations.
Case management has become a popular and prevalent way to organize and allocate health and social services in the United States and has particularly been emphasized in long-term care (Austin, 1988; Austin et al.

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