Wages in both groups of states rose more slowly after bracero
exclusion than in 23 states that had not had any braceros
could become a reengancho, irrespective of whether they had previously arrived on the island as shanghaied or authorized subjects.
First, the number of H-2A guest workers could continue to increase, returning some of US agriculture to labor conditions of the Bracero
era, when foreign guest workers lived on the farms where they worked and dominated workforces in particular crops.
As the initial phase of the Bracero
Program ended in the early 1950s and the number of migrant workers grew larger, two Presidential Committees were established to investigate various aspects of domestic and foreign migratory labor.
The official rationale for the Bracero
Program, defined first as a wartime measure and then as a series of public law extensions, was a shortage of agricultural labor.
Mexicans, the largest Latin American migrant group, had previously enjoyed access to unlimited resident visas and about 450,000 guest worker visas through the Bracero
Calderon dedico dos jornadas para iniciar los pagos de un total de 3 mil 800 millones de pesos a braceros
de hace 70 anos.
Como era dificil impedir el flujo migratorio, las autoridades federales maniobraron para que los mexicanos tuvieran las menores dificultades; aunque hubo platicas y acuerdos, nunca se llevo a cabo una negociacion bilateral y tampoco se firmo un convenio, por lo que llamado primer Programa Bracero
jamas se concerto, aunque el exodo masivo implico la exigencia del gobierno mexicano para que se firmaran contratos laborales que se respetaran (Durand, 2006; y Alanis, 2001).
On the one hand, the government's creation of the Bracero
Program brought Mexican workers to every region of the US, shaping contemporary patterns of labour migration.
President Franklin Roosevelt launched the railroad maintenance portion of the bracero
program--originally intended only for agricultural work--in 1943, because war materiel was piling up in industrial centers like Detroit.
In 1942 representatives of both nations negotiated the Bracero
Program, under which hundreds of thousands of Mexicans entered the United States as temporary workers.
Why, then, did we open the door at all, with bracero
programs and other short-lived relaxations of the nativism that has marked most of our history?