42) Following Halvorsen and Palmquist (1980), we calculate the percentage change effect of a

binary variable on our logged dependent variable as 100 x [exp([beta]) - 1].

The NLP sub-problem corresponds to the continuous optimization of parameters with

binary variables, which are temporarily fixed, and yields an upper bound to the MINLP objective function to be minimized.

Given this criterion, the following demographic variables on a sample of 184 self-employed respondents were constructed: age, years of education, number of hours spent working, real income, and

binary variables indicating whether or not the respondent is foreign born, has a father that is foreign born, had a father that was self-employed when the respondent was a child, is black, is married, is female, and lives in the South.

MBS P&I payment day, post-GSE policy is a

binary variable equal to 1 on the 15th and 25th of the month, or the first business day thereafter, after the change in GSE credit policy on July 1, 2006.

We also defined a

binary variable set to 1 for those who used insulin and a separate binary set to 1 for those who used oral medications.

First, while finding a good instrument can be hard, the

binary variable selected is questionable.

j] a

binary variable which is one if column j is chosen and zero otherwise.

The first explanatory variable, CRA_DG(i, t-1) is a

binary variable equal to one for a downgraded bank in year t-1, zero otherwise.

The

binary variable ACADEMIC indicates that 25 percent of the charter schools stress academic excellence in their mission statements.

To create a

binary variable for SOX implementation, the auditors' reports for 2004 were examined.

the first six-year interval) can be attributed to the trade-off of a lower initial return for education for overeducated workers (as measured by the coefficient on an interaction between the

binary variable for overeducation and years of education) and a positive return for accepting an overeducated pairing (as measured by the coefficient on the

binary variable for overeducation).

In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable measured the likelihood of being prepared for retirement; a

binary variable (1 if the investment assets-to-net worth ratio is greater than .