Bank of England


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Bank of England

The central bank of the United Kingdom. It is let by a Governor, which is at least nominally a civil service post. The Bank of England prints money for England and Wales (though not for Northern Ireland or Scotland) and acts as a lender of last resort for all banks in the UK. Through its semi-independent Monetary Policy Committee, the Bank of England sets monetary policy for the UK, particularly by attempting to ensure that inflation remains as close as possible to 2%. If the inflation rate is more than 1% in either direction of 2%, the Governor of the Bank of England must write the Chancellor of the Exchequer to explain how he/she will remedy the situation. It was established in 1694 and served as the model for the creation of most modern central banks. See also: Federal Reserve System, European Central Bank.

Bank of England

the CENTRAL BANK of the UK which acts as banker to the government and the BANKING SYSTEM and acts as the authority responsible for implementing MONETARY POLICY. The Bank of England handles the government's financial accounts in conjunction with the TREASURY, taking in receipts from taxation and the sale of government assets, and making disbursements to the various government departments to fund their activities. The Bank acts as the government's broker in its borrowing and lending operations, issuing and dealing in government BONDS and TREASURY BILLS to underpin its year-to-year budgetary position and management of the country's NATIONAL DEBT.

COMMERCIAL BANKS hold accounts with the Bank of England and, in its role as banker to the banking system, the Bank makes it possible for banks to settle their indebtedness with one another by adjusting their accounts as appropriate (see CLEARING HOUSE SYSTEM).

The Bank of England and its satellite, the Royal Mint, are responsible for issuing the country's basic stock of money – LEGAL TENDER consisting of bank notes and coins (see MONEY SUPPLY). The bank occupies a key role in the implementation of monetary policy through controls on the money supply, influencing the level of bank deposits and credit creation by the financial institutions, particularly commercial banks, while the MONETARY POLICY COMMITTEE has the responsibility for setting ‘official’ INTEREST RATES in the UK which in turn determines all other short-term interest rates (BASE RATE, BILL DISCOUNTING INTEREST RATE, INTERBANK CLEARING INTEREST RATE).

The Bank is also responsible for managing the country's EXCHANGE RATE and holding the country's stock of INTERNATIONAL RESERVES to be used in the financing of balance of payments deficits. The Bank of England operates a ‘Foreign Exchange Equalization Account’ which it uses to intervene in the FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET, buying and selling currencies to support the exchange rate at a particular level or to ensure that it falls (depreciates) or rises (appreciates) in an ‘orderly’ manner. See LENDER OF LAST RESORT.

Bank of England

the CENTRAL BANK of the UK, which acts as banker to the government and the BANKING SYSTEM and acts as the authority responsible for implementing MONETARY POLICY. The Bank of England handles the government's financial accounts in conjunction with the TREASURY, taking in receipts from taxation and the sale of government assets, and making disbursements to the various government departments to fund their activities. The bank acts as the government's broker in its borrowing and lending operations, issuing and dealing in government BONDS and TREASURY BILLS to underpin its year-to-year budgetary position and management of the country's NATIONAL DEBT.

COMMERCIAL BANKS hold accounts with the Bank of England and, in its role as banker to the banking system, the Bank makes it possible for banks to settle their indebtedness with one another by adjusting their accounts as appropriate (see CLEARING HOUSE SYSTEM).

The Bank of England and its satellite, the Royal Mint, are responsible for issuing the country's basic stock of money - LEGAL TENDER, consisting of bank notes and coins (see MONEY SUPPLY). The Bank occupies a key role in the implementation of monetary policy through controls on the money supply, influencing the level of bank deposits and credit creation by the financial institutions, particularly commercial banks (see BANK DEPOSIT CREATION), while the MONETARY POLICY COMMITTEE has the responsibility for setting ‘official’ INTEREST RATES in the UK, which in turn determines all other short-term interest rates (BASE RATE, BILL DISCOUNTING INTEREST RATE, INTERBANK CLEARING INTEREST RATE).

The Bank is also responsible for managing the country's EXCHANGE RATE and holding the country's stock of INTERNATIONAL RESERVES to be used in the financing of balance-of-payments deficits. The Bank of England operates a ‘Foreign Exchange Equalization Account’ that it uses to intervene in the FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET, buying and selling currencies to support the exchange rate at a particular level or to ensure that it falls (depreciates) or rises (appreciates) in an ‘orderly’ manner. See LENDER OF LAST RESORT.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Bank of England and Financial Services Bill builds on these reforms with a series of evolutionary changes.
The Bank of England also commented on the potential impact of the global forces - particularly the performance of emerging markets.
The Bank of England survey found business demand for loans rose for a second straight quarter, with lenders saying firms wanted loans to fund mergers and acquisitions and for investment in property.
A tall, imposing and cheerful man, Robin had a talent for inspiring and persuading others to work for him," said Mervyn King, Bank of England governor from 2003 to 2013 but who had first joined the institution in 1992.
The Bank of England then sold yet another tranche of looted gold for the Nazi regime in June 1939.
The job is considered to be one of the most powerful in Britain, with the Bank of England taking on extra responsibilities for banking supervision as part of an overhaul of financial regulation following the economic crisis.
Along with its central role in monetary policy, this Government has put the Bank of England back in charge of regulating our financial system so that we don't repeat the mistakes of the last decade.
That's why many economists think the Bank of England will soon sanction another round of monetary stimulus as it seeks to get the British economy going again.
Sir Mervyn's tenure at the helm of the Bank of England has coincided with the worst economic crisis since the Depression of the 1930s.
The surge piled pressure on the Bank of England to raise interest rates to curb the soaring consumer prices index rate of inflation.
Rob Elder, of the Bank of England, addressed members on the economy both nationally and internationally, giving some insight into the Bank's perspective on the coming months.
The Bank of England is tipped to cut its benchmark rate to 0.

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