this began to change in the 1990s, largely driven by the anti-sweatshop movement.
Can the anti-sweatshop movement, in concert with other elements of the alter-mondialist/global justice movement, play on this contradiction to advance workers' collective power in free trade zones and in the United States?
The anti-sweatshop movement is a subset of actors and campaigns within the larger corporate accountability movement that aims to identify sweatshop conditions and to define and enforce labor standards within the global apparel industry.
In the first part of this essay, I describe the emergence of the anti-sweatshop movement and the restructuring of the global apparel industry in order to highlight the way in which the movement has framed its demands on the corporation.
The anti-sweatshop movement represents a form of transnational advocacy network, described by Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink in their book Activists Beyond Borders.
For example, as will be detailed below, the anti-sweatshop movement has tapped into rhetorical commonplaces codified in U.
The rights that the anti-sweatshop movement incorporates in such instruments as codes of conduct are the core labor standards identified in ILO conventions, which include freedom of association, the right to collective bargaining, bans on child and forced labor, and minimum standards with respect to wages, working conditions, and health and safety.
9) Therefore, the anti-sweatshop movement has primarily resorted to pushing for the adoption of codes of conduct and the education of consumers through direct actions.
The emergence of the anti-sweatshop movement and the manner in which it frames its campaigns and demands must be understood in the context of significant changes in the global apparel industry in the past three decades.
Anti-sweatshop movement activists interpret the impact of the restructuring of the apparel industry using the rhetoric of anti-globalization activism.