A way in Anthrax toxin
from the Bacillus anthracis bacterium is composed of three proteins, called protective antigen, edema factor and lethal factor.
anthracis (Ames strain) was analyzed, and to date the pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids responsible for the anthrax toxins
have been sequenced (51, 52).
Once in the bloodstream, the bacteria begin to produce the anthrax toxin
that infiltrates and kills host cells.
Specific, sensitive, and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunoglobulin G antibodies to anthrax toxin
After infection in the bloodstream, the bacteria secrete a complex series of toxin components that make up anthrax toxin
, resulting in overwhelming toxemia that causes shock and organ failure.
Two weeks after the last shot, the animals received an injection of anthrax toxin
Serial serum samples, obtained on October 7, 10, 11, and 17, indicated a serum IgG antibody response to the PA component of the anthrax toxin
consistent with acute B.
Haase revealed that that observation reminded him o f work done by a fellow immunologist at the University of Minnesota, Patrick Schlievert, whose lab had found that glycerol monolaurate inhibits the production of some deadly bacterial toxins, including anthrax toxin
and toxins responsible for toxic shock syndrome.
Pulendran's team found that, unlike macrophages, dendritic cells exposed to the anthrax toxin
Recombinant anthrax toxin
protective antigen (rPA) with an amino acid sequence concurring with that from the Bacillus anthracis V770-NP1-R anthrax vaccine strain was obtained from the National Institute of Craniofacial and Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
After protective antigen and the other anthrax toxin
components are produced by the bacteria, protective antigen binds to the anthrax toxin
receptor on cell surfaces and forms a protein-receptor complex that makes it possible for the other anthrax toxin
components to enter the cells where they become active.
A recent study evaluated the protective efficacy of four murine MAbs to anthrax toxin
components (two to PA and one each to EF and LF) in guinea pigs; only one (to PA) gave partial protection, and the effect was substantially lower than that observed with polyclonal sera (10).