It is hard to avoid the conclusion that, in part, these centres were designed to create amakudari
positions for police officers.
This is reinforced by the practice known as amakudari
(descent from heaven), whereby bureaucrats, following retirement from government service, descend from on high to toil in the earthly realms of business and politics, taking advantage of connections forged earlier through gakubatsu (university ties), kyodobatsu (prefecture ties), and keibatsu (marriage ties).
In Japan, the term amakudari
denotes the widespread practice of senior officials taking up positions upon retiring from government.
In a similar vein, van Rixtel (2002) also argues that an amakudari
bank can maximize its own economic rents by manipulating established relationships with monetary regulators to its competitive advantage.
use of amakudari
, but it is not clear that its efforts to fulfill its
(''descent from heaven''), the practice of giving senior regulators jobs at the helm of industry, has been stopped.
There has been consensus on aims since the 1950s, and tight-knit personal contacts are reinforced by amakudari
, revolving doors between government and business, and shared interests and ideas.
Adding to the unease were foreign press reports that, via the so-called amakudari
system, the power company and the Ministry for Economy were in bed together.
Throughout the Asia-Pacific, critical decisions and policies pertaining to national security--particularly arms procurement, doctrine, and force structure--are commonly made by small, insular groups of military officers, career civilian defense officials, defense industry representatives, and private advisers (many of whom are ex-military men or former bureaucrats, a pattern known in Japan as amakudari
, or literally "descent from heaven").
A good analogy to the Carlyle system is a Japanese tradition known as amakudari
(literally, "descent from heaven").
In a similar context, Horiuchi and Shimizu (1998) propose a simple model of repeated games to show that the regulatory authorit ies utilize monitoring as a tool of obtaining the self-enforcing amakudari
relationship (a job turnover from a ministry into a private business known as descent from heaven) with private banks at the expense of stringent supervision.
Indirect incentives may come through regulators understanding that cooperative behavior may be rewarded with lucrative employment opportunities in the industry after leaving the government, a practice so common in the past with Japanese Ministry of Finance officials that it is euphemistically called amakudari
, the "descent from heaven.